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The headstone of Private R. Stewart, of the Black Watch, who died May 4, 1915, age 19, and is buried in Le Trou Aid Post Cemetery in Fleurbaix, Pas-de-Calais, France. It is inscribed
To memory ever dear
From Father and Mother
Sisters and Brothers

The headstone of Private R. Stewart, of the Black Watch, who died May 4, 1915, age 19, and is buried in Le Trou Aid Post Cemetery in Fleurbaix, Pas-de-Calais, France. It is inscribed
To memory ever dear
From Father and Mother
Sisters and Brothers © 2015 John M. Shea

Australians at Anzac Cove, December 17, 1915, from 'Gallipoli' by John Masefield. The Allied completed evacuating their positions at Suvla Bay and Anzac Cove on December 19.
Text:
Australians at Anzac two days before the evacuation took place.

Australians at Anzac Cove, December 17, 1915, from 'Gallipoli' by John Masefield. The Allied completed evacuating their positions at Suvla Bay and Anzac Cove on December 19.

Russian troops fleeing a solitary German soldier. The Russian First Army invaded Germany in August 1914, and defeated the Germans in the Battle of Gumbinnen on the 20th. In September the Germans drove them out of Russia in the First Battle of the Masurian Lakes. In September and October, a joint German, Austro-Hungarian offensive drove the Russians back almost to Warsaw. Illustration by E. H. Nunes.
Text:
Die Russen haben große Hoffnungen auf den Krieg gesetzt, - es ist aber auch eine Kehrseite dabei.
The Russians have set high hopes for the war - but there is also a downside to that.
Reverse:
Kriegs-Postkarte der Meggendorfer-Blätter, München. Nr. 25
War postcard of the Meggendorfer Blätter, Munich. # 25

Russian troops fleeing a solitary German soldier. The Russian First Army invaded Germany in August 1914, and defeated the Germans in the Battle of Gumbinnen on the 20th. In September the Germans drove them out of Russia in the First Battle of the Masurian Lakes. In September and October, a joint German, Austro-Hungarian offensive drove the Russians back almost to Warsaw. Illustration by E. H. Nunes.

Cover of the 1915 sheet music for "When the Lusitania Went Down" by Charles McCarron and Nat. Vincent showing the ship underway and two public rooms. The Lusitania was sunk by the German submarine U-20 on May 7, 1915.

Cover of the 1915 sheet music for "When the Lusitania Went Down" by Charles McCarron and Nat. Vincent. The Lusitania was sunk by the German submarine U-20 on May 7, 1915.

Memorial to the French Moroccan Division at Vimy Ridge. The face commemorates the Division's victory at the Second Battle of Artois, in which the Moroccan Division broke the German front for the first time and took Hill 140, their objective.
Listed on the sides of the memorial are the sectors and battles where the Division fought:
1914
The Ardennes
August 28 — La Fosse a l'Eeau
August 30 — Bertoncourt
September 1 — Alincourt
The Marne
September 6 to 9 — Coizard, Mondement
December 30 — Ferme d'Alger
1915
Belgium
January 28 — Nieuport, la Grande Dune
Artois
May 9 — la Cote 140
June 16 — Ravin de Souchez
Champagne
September 25 — Butte de Souain, Bois Sabot
1916
the Somme
July 4 — Assevillers, Bellov en Santerre, Barleux
1917
Champagne
April 17 — Moronvilliers, Mont sans Nom, Auberive
Verdun
August 20 — Cumieres, Bois des Corbeaux, Forges Regnieville
1918
Lorraine
January 8 — Flirey
the Somme
April 26 — Villers-Bretonneux, Bois de Hangard
the Aisne
May 30 — Vauxbuin, Chazelle
June 12 — Ambleny
July 18 to 20 — Dommiers Chaudum
September 2 to 8 — Terny-Sorny, Moulin de Laffaux, Allemant
November 11 — Victory
November 17 — Entered Chateau-Salins

Memorial to the French Moroccan Division at Vimy Ridge. The face commemorates the Division's victory at the Second Battle of Artois, in which the Moroccan Division broke the German front for the first time and took Hill 140, their objective.
Listed on the sides of the memorial are the sectors and battles where the Division fought:
1914
The Ardennes
August 28 — La Fosse a l'Eeau
August 30 — Bertoncourt
September 1 — Alincourt
The Marne
September 6 to 9 — Coizard, Mondement
December 30 — Ferme d'Alger
1915
Belgium
January 28 — Nieuport, la Grande Dune
Artois
May 9 — la Cote 140
June 16 — Ravin de Souchez
Champagne
September 25 — Butte de Souain, Bois Sabot
1916
the Somme
July 4 — Assevillers, Bellov en Santerre, Barleux
1917
Champagne
April 17 — Moronvilliers, Mont sans Nom, Auberive
Verdun
August 20 — Cumieres, Bois des Corbeaux, Forges Regnieville
1918
Lorraine
January 8 — Flirey
the Somme
April 26 — Villers-Bretonneux, Bois de Hangard
the Aisne
May 30 — Vauxbuin, Chazelle
June 12 — Ambleny
July 18 to 20 — Dommiers Chaudum
September 2 to 8 — Terny-Sorny, Moulin de Laffaux, Allemant
November 11 — Victory
November 17 — Entered Chateau-Salins © 2013, John M. Shea

Quotations found: 8

Tuesday, May 4, 1915

"I was one of thirteen men left behind as a rearguard and we were told exactly what we had to do. What we did was fire a shot — and of course at night you could see the flash of the rifle, the Germans could see it — then we would walk along the trench, maybe for about ten yards, and we could wait a few seconds and fire another shot, and then another chap would come along and do the same and I'd come back to another place and fire off again. That led his nibs across the road to figure the trench was still fully occupied." ((1), more)

Wednesday, May 5, 1915

"By May 5 [Hamilton] had got his reinforcements from Egypt, and in addition he took six thousand men from Birdwood and put them into the British line at Cape Helles: a force of 25,000 men in all. Through most of May 6, 7, and 8 the fight went on and with the same heroic desperation as before. 'Drums and trumpets will sound the charge,' General d'Amade announced to the French, and out they went in their pale-blue uniforms and their white cork helmets, a painfully clear target against the dun-coloured earth. Each day they hoped to get to Achi Baba. Each night when they had gained perhaps 300 yards in one place and nothing in another a new attack was planned for the following day. . . . A wild unreality intervened between the wishes of the commanders and the conditions of the actual battle on the shore. The battle made its own rules, and it was useless for the general to order the soldiers to make for this or that objective; there were no objectives except the enemy himself. This was a simple exercise in killing, and in the end all orders were reduced to just one or two very simple propositions: either to attack or to hold on." ((2), more)

Thursday, May 6, 1915

"Thursday, May 6, 1915.

Between the Carpathians and the Vistula the Russian situation is becoming critical. After very severe fighting at Tarnov, Gorlice, and Jaslo they are hastily retiring behind the Dunajec and Wisloka. The losses are enormous: the number of prisoners is said to be 40,000."
((3), more)

Friday, May 7, 1915

"At 2:15 p.m., when ten to fifteen miles off the Old Head of Kinsale, the weather being then clear and the sea smooth, the Captain, who was on the port side of the lower bridge, heard the call, 'There is a torpedo coming, sir' given by the second officer. He looked to starboard and then saw a streak of foam in the wake of a torpedo traveling towards his ship. Immediately afterwards the Lusitania was struck on the starboard side somewhere between the third and fourth funnels. The blow broke number 5 life-boat to splinters. A second torpedo was fired immediately afterwards, which also struck the ship on the starboard side. The two torpedoes struck the ship almost simultaneously." ((4), more)

Saturday, May 8, 1915

"The British thought they had killed everyone but they hadn't. The shells fell too far behind the Turkish lines. The Turks were intact and ready for us. As soon as the bombardment finished we were ordered over the top. When we ran across the Daisy Patch toward the Turk line there was thousands of rifles and machine-guns trained on us. They were across open country 400 yards away. We were getting shot from all directions. It was just a mass of bullets. The ground was hopping with bullets like it was hailing. The Turks was all in trenches. All you could see was their heads. They weren't in the open at all. . . . There was a machine-gun trained across where I was. There were five chaps killed in front of me. One, two, three, four, five, as quick as that." ((5), more)


Quotation contexts and source information

Tuesday, May 4, 1915

(1) The German success in breaking the Allied line on April 22, 1915 in the Second Battle of Ypres, left British forces defending a salient subject to artillery fire from three sides. After fruitless attempts to improve their position, they withdrew to a more compact, defensible line with Ypres at their back, the night of May 3-4. Private J. W. Vaughan of Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry was among those left behind to feign an active line. When he and his mates finally withdrew, 'all hell broke loose because, as soon as they didn't hear any more firing from the front line, the Germans figured we were coming over.'

1915, The Death of Innocence by Lyn Macdonald, page 272, copyright © 1993 by Lyn Macdonald, publisher: Henry Holt and Company, publication date: 1993 (Great Britain); 199

Wednesday, May 5, 1915

(2) Within days of the Allied invasion of Gallipoli on April 25, 1915, neither the Turks nor the Allies could advance significantly. The opposing commanders pleaded for reinforcements. The Entente Allies were reluctant to divert men from the fighting in France. General Sir Ian Hamilton had overall command of the Allied campaign and got troops where he could find them, from Egypt and from his commanders. General Sir William Birdwood commanded the Australia and New Zealand Army Corps, which had landed at Gaba Tepe — Anzac Cove — barely five miles north of the Anglo-French landing site at Cape Helles at the end of the Gallipoli Peninsula. Achi Baba was a hill 709 feet high that dominated the Allied position at Cape Helles six miles to its south.

Gallipoli by Alan Moorehead, page 155, copyright © 1956 by Alan Moorehead, publisher: Perennial Classics 2002 (HarperCollins Publications 1956), publication date: 2002 (1956)

Thursday, May 6, 1915

(3) Entry for Thursday, May 6, 1915, from the memoirs of the French Ambassador in Russia, Maurice Paléologue. Commanding a joint German-Austro-Hungarian army, German commander August von Mackensen began his Gorlice-Tarnow Offensive on May 2, 1915 with a bombardment of an estimated 700,000 shells along a 30-mile front. By May 4, the Russian line had broken, and Erich von Falkenhayn, Commander in Chief of the German Army, observed that by then it was obvious the Russians would not be able to halt the offensive 'within an appreciable time.' They would not do so for months.

An Ambassador's Memoirs Vol. I by Maurice Paléologue, page 336, publisher: George H. Doran Company, publication date: 1925

Friday, May 7, 1915

(4) Excerpt from the British law-court report on the sinking of the Cunard Company passenger liner Lusitania by the German submarine U-20 on May 7, 1915. Great Britain declared the entire North Sea a military zone as of November 5, 1914, and imposed a blockade of Germany. Germany accused Britain of both arming merchant ships and sailing them under flags of neutral nations. On February 4, 1915, Germany announced a war zone around the British Isles and a campaign of unrestricted submarine warfare in which all ships of Britain and its allies were subject to sinking without notice.

The Great Events of the Great War in Seven Volumes by Charles F. Horne, Vol. III, 1915, pp. 190, 191, copyright © 1920 by The National Alumnia, publisher: The National Alumni, publication date: 1920

Saturday, May 8, 1915

(5) New Zealander Hartly Palmer on his attempt to cross the 'Daisy Patch' against entrenched Turkish Infantry on May 8, 1915. Within days of the Allied invasion of Gallipoli on April 25, 1915, neither the Turks nor the Allies could advance, and struggled to reinforce their troops. Allied commander General Sir Ian Hamilton brought troops from Egypt and redeployed men of the Australia and New Zealand Army Corps who had landed at Gaba Tepe — Anzac Cove — south to the Anglo-French position at Cape Helles on the end of the Gallipoli Peninsula. Achi Baba, the objective, was a 709-foot high hill from which the Turks dominated the Allied position. The attempt to cross the open 'Daisy Patch' was a disaster for the men who tried. Joe Gasparich, another New Zealand survivor, referred to the Turkish troops as 'Jacko,', and observed that he was 'safe as houses' in his entrenchments.

Voices of Gallipoli by Maurice Shadbolt, page 31, copyright © 1988 Maurice Shadbolt, publisher: Hodder and Stoughton, publication date: 1988


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