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Map of the Eastern Front, mid-July, 1915 from The Capture of Novo Georgievsk, Volume 8 of the Reichsarchive history Battles of the World War.

Map of the Eastern Front, mid-July, 1915 from The Capture of Novo Georgievsk, Volume 8 of the Reichsarchive history Battles of the World War.

Chosen Boy, a 1918 watercolor by Paul Klee. From 'Paul Klee: Early and Late Years: 1894-1940'.

Chosen Boy, a 1918 watercolor by Paul Klee. From Paul Klee: Early and Late Years: 1894-1940. © 2013 Moeller Fine Art

French folding postcard map of Verdun and the Meuse River, number 9 from the series %i1%Les Cartes du Front%i0%. Montfaucon is in the upper left and St. Mihiel at the bottom.
Text:
Les Cartes du Front
Verdun et Côtes de Meuse
Echelle 1:32,000
Routes
Chemin de fer
Canaux
Maps of the Front
Verdun and the Hills of the Meuse
Scale: 1:32,000
Roads
Railways
Canals
1. - Les Flandres
2. - Artois, Picardie
3. - Aisne, Champagne
4. - Argonne et Meuse
5. - Lorraine
6. - Vosges et Alsace
7. - Route des Dame et Plateau de Craonne
8. - Région de Perthes
9. - Verdun
10. - Somme et Santerre
11. - Plateau d'Artois
12. - Belgique - Flandres
A. Hatier. Editeur.8.Rue d'Assas, Paris.
Outer front:
Correspondence of the Armies
Military Franchise

French folding postcard map of Verdun and the Meuse River, number 9 from the series Les Cartes du Front. Montfaucon is in the upper left and St. Mihiel at the bottom.

Uniforms of the British Army, 1914, from a series of postcards of uniforms of the combatants in the 1914 European War.
Text:
Guerre Européenne 1914
Armée Anglaise
Dragon guards
Scots greys
Hussard
Gendarme de campagne
Lancier
Officier du génie
Général
Life guards
Volontaire
Volontaire Australien
Volontaire
Grenadier guards
Scots guards
Coldstream guards
Colstream guards (pet. tenue)
Kings Royal Rifles
Rifles brigrade
Scottish Rifles
Cameron highlanders
Highlanders (officier)
Royal Scots fusiliers
Corps Expéditionnaire
Infanterie anglaise
Troupes de l'Inde
Régiment de Cippayes West India (officier)

Déposé J.C 8-9

European War 1914 
British Army 
Dragoon guards
Scots Greys
Hussar
Mounted Policeman
Lancer
Engineering Officer
General
Life Guards
Volunteer
Australian Volunteer
Volunteer
Grenadier Guard
Scots Guard
Coldstream Guard
Colstream Guards (service dress)
Kings Royal Rifles
Rifle Brigade
Scottish Rifles
Cameron Highlander
Highlanders (Officer)
Royal Scots Fusiliers
Expeditionary Corps
English Infantry
Indian troop
Sepoy Regiment West India (Officer)

Filed J.C 8-9

Reverse:
J'espere bien que cette carte plâira à sa petite majesté, elle a été achetée à son intention . . .
I hope that this card will appeal to his little majesty, it was purchased for him. . .

Uniforms of the British Army, 1914, from a series of postcards of uniforms of the combatants in the 1914 European War.

Having stopped unrestricted submarine warfare after sinking the Lusitania in 1915, Germany resumed the policy on January 31, 1917. The campaign peaked in April 1917, and helped bring the United States into the war.
Text:
U-Bootswirkung im Mittelmeer.
12 Monate uneingeschränkten
U-Bootskrieges auf dem Mittelmeer-Kriegsschauplatz
Alle durch Minen und vor dem 1. Februar 1917 vernichteten Schiffe sind in dieser Karte nicht enthalten.
[symbol] bedeutet ein durch die Tätigkeit unserer U-Boote versenktes Schiff ohne Berücksichtigung seiner Größe.
Die Eintragungen der Schiffe entsprechen dem Versenkungsort.
"Die wichtigste unmitteilbare militärische Ursache der Italienischen Niederlage wird unwidersprchen in dem Mangel an Munition und schweren Kanonen erblickt: den die Unterseeboote haben die Erz- und Kohlenzufuhr unterbunden." - (New York Times, 4.11.17)
Monatsergebnisse der Gesamtversenkungen
Februar, 1917, 785,000 Br.-Reg.-T.
Marz, 890,000
April, 1,100,000
Mai, 870,000
Juni, 1,020,000 Br.-Reg.-T.
Juli, 815,000
August, 810,000
September, 675,000
Oktober, 675,000 Br.-Reg.-T.
November, 610,000
Dezember, 705,000
Januar, 635,000
Insgesamt 9,590,000 Br.-Reg.-T.

Submarine action in the Mediterranean.
Full 12 months
U-Boat War in the Mediterranean theater of war
All ships destroyed by mines or before February 1, 1917 are not included in this map.
[symbol] indicates a ship sunk by the activity of our submarines regardless of its size.
The entries of the vessels meet the Versenkungsort.
"The most important cause of the indescribable Italian military defeat is indisputably due to the lack of ammunition and heavy guns. The submarines have prevented the supply of ore and coal." - (New York Times, 4:11:17)
Monthly breakdown of the total sinkings:
February, 1917, 785,000 imperial tons
March, 890,000
April, 1,100,000
May, 870,000
June, 1,020,000 imperial tons
July, 815,000
August, 810,000
September, 675,000
October, 675,000

Having stopped unrestricted submarine warfare after sinking the Lusitania in 1915, Germany resumed the policy on January 31, 1917. The campaign peaked in April 1917, and helped bring the United States into the war.

Quotations found: 7

Saturday, March 18, 1916

"The offensive was carried out at a time of year that could not have been less suitable if it had been chosen by the Germans. It opened on 18th March [1916]. The winter conditions had given way to those of early spring — alternating freezes and thaws that made the roads either an ice-rink or a morass. Shell would explode to little effect against ground that was either hard as iron or churned to a morass; gas was also ineffective in the cold. Supplies presented problems that the best-trained army would have found impossible to solve: the man-handling of boxes of heavy shell through slush that was a foot deep. The Russian rear was a scene of epic confusion — complicated by the astonishingly large masses of cavalry deployed there, to no effect whatsoever at the front. It was altogether an episode that suggests commanders had lost such wits as they still possessed." ((1), more)

Sunday, March 19, 1916

"'. . . the English are arriving here every day.'

. . . 'I can't wait to find out where you are going there are a great many from around here who write to say that they are going to Verdun you already know . . . but as for me when will I know too. H. hasn't written for more than a week and he usually writes every day Is it the change of location or has something happened to him everyone wants to know.' . . . 'B's son who belonged to the Twelfth at Notre-Dame-de-Lorette has been at Verdun for the past week.'"
((2), more)

Monday, March 20, 1916

"On 20th March 1916, German artillery suddenly triggered assaults against Hill 304 with a fury which had not been seen since 21st February. A massive assault was brooding. At 3.10 pm, an alarming report from the balloon of the 36th Compagnie d'Aérostiers read: 'Amazingly violent bombing above the trenches in the Bois de Malancourt. Three huge blasts with burst of flames rising at least 100 metres above ground have just taken place.' Twenty minutes later, another incoming message from the balloon said: 'The three huge black clouds first reported were not caused by blasts, but by attacks with inflamed liquid.' The flame-thrower attack was later confirmed by 'tongues of fire' seen on the Avocourt-Malancourt road." ((3), more)

Tuesday, March 21, 1916

"As he passed from one 1914 man to another he dug is elbow into the C.O.'s ribs and exclaimed, 'You're a lucky fellow.' When it was over he said to the G.O.C., 'That's been a treat. That's the sort we've known for thirty years.' Orderly Room estimated that the Battalion still had 250 originals, mostly in the Transport, Drums, and Signals, and among the N.C.Os. Of the other originals, some 500 had been killed or wounded; some were detached; the balance had gone home sick and become scattered. With comparatively few exceptions the men are Regulars, Reservists, and Special Reserves." ((4), more)

Wednesday, March 22, 1916

"The Germans lost only four U-boats in the waters around the British Isles in March and April [1916]. One of those losses, U.68 in the southwestern approaches on 22 March, was due to the depth charges of the Q-ship Farnborough. The Farnborough was under the command of Lieutenant Commander Gordon Campbell, considered the most famous of the Q-ship commanders, and the episode was a classic example of Q-ship tactics with the ship blowing off steam and the stokers and spare men pretending to abandon ship in a panic after the submarine had surfaced and fired a shot across the steamer's bow. Once the submarine had closed, Campbell opened fire and finished her off with a depth charge." ((5), more)


Quotation contexts and source information

Saturday, March 18, 1916

(1) The Battle of Lake Narotch was Russia's response to the French requests for offensives by its allies to draw German forces from the siege at Verdun. Russian industry, supplemented by imports from Japan and the United States, was finally able to produce weapons and materiel that could meet the demands of the war. The Russians were numerically superior to the German defenders. Historian Norman Stone calls the offensive the last of the old Russian army — an army commanded by old men fighting the wars of the last century, who had learned little during the current war, where dismissals for incompetence could be overridden by appeals to the Tsar, where artillery and infantry did not coordinate their efforts.

The Eastern Front, 1914-1917 by Norman Stone, page 228, copyright © 1975 Norman Stone, publisher: Charles Scribner's Sons, publication date: 1975

Sunday, March 19, 1916

(2) Excerpts from letters by Paul Pireaud and his wife Marie, the first paragraph from Paul, the second from his wife, both from March, 1916. Paul was with the 112th Heavy Artillery Regiment which was about to be transferred to Verdun where the battle for the sector had been in progress since February 21. Commanding the defense, French General Henri Philippe Pétain kept the sector supplied and reinforced, rotating men and units through in roughly eight days. To free French troops for service at Verdun, the British were extending their line. Notre-Dame-de-Lorette is in Artois, had had been the site of Battles of Artois in 1914 and 1915. Marie's punctuation is minimal.

Your Death Would Be Mine; Paul and Marie Pireaud in the Great War by Martha Hanna, pp. 95, 96, copyright © 2006 by Martha Hanna, publisher: Harvard University Press, publication date: 2006

Monday, March 20, 1916

(3) The German attacked west of Verdun, between the city and the Argonne Forest, on March 20, 1916. A French brigade of 2,800 men were surrounded and surrendered.

The Battle of Verdun by Yves Buffetaut, page 52, copyright © Ysec Éditions 2013, publisher: Ysec Editions, publication date: 2013

Tuesday, March 21, 1916

(4) Part of the entry for March 21, 1916 from the writings — diaries, letters, and memoirs — of Captain J.C. Dunn, Medical Officer of the Second Battalion His Majesty's Twenty-Third Foot, The Royal Welch Fusiliers and dozens of his comrades. That day the Corps Commander, Lieut.-General Haking inspected the men, and found many of them had come out in August 1914 — they were part of the old British Army, one of 100,000 men, that had been destroyed in the battles of 1914: the Allied retreat, the Race to the Sea, the Battle of Ypres.

The War the Infantry Knew 1914-1919 by Captain J.C. Dunn, page 185, copyright © The Royal Welch Fusiliers 1987, publisher: Abacus (Little, Brown and Company, UK), publication date: 1994

Wednesday, March 22, 1916

(5) The Q-ship was a decoy, typically a steamer with disguised weapons. The depth charge, set to detonate at a predetermined depth, was a new weapon. The submarine U.68 was sunk off the southwest coast of Ireland.

A Naval History of World War I by Paul G. Halpern, page 309, copyright © 1994 by the United States Naval Institute, publisher: UCL Press, publication date: 1994


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