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Transylvania

Detail from Cram's 1903 Railway Map of the Austro-Hungarian Empire showing Transylvania.

Detail from Cram's 1903 Railway Map of the Austro-Hungarian Empire showing Transylvania.

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Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.

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Annexed by Hungary in 1867, Transylvania, in southeastern Austria-Hungary, had a large Romanian population, and was one of Romania's principal war aims when Romania declared war, crossed the mountains that formed the border with Austria-Hungary, and entered Transylvania the night of August 27, 1916. By October, a combined Central Power offensive had driven Romania from Transylvania.

In late 1918, as the Austro-Hungarian Empire broke apart, political groups and parties, some overlapping, sought to define Transylvania's future status.

On September 28, 1918, the Executive Committee of the National Romanian Party in Transylvania decided to resume military activity. On October 12, 1918, a party meeting declared the right of self-determination for the Romanian Nation in Hungary and Transylvania, and submitted it to the Hungarian Parliament on October 18, 1918.

On October 30 and 31, the Romanian National Party and the Socio-Democratic Party established a Romanian National Council to govern Transylvania prior to union with Romania. On December 1, the Great National Assembly voted the union of Transylvania and Romania, passing as well provisions for universal male and female suffrage over age 21, freedom of the press, and equal rights for all citizens.

Transylvania is a region in Austria-Hungary.