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Russia

Original hand-painted watercolor by E.R. of the Russian Imperial flag with double-headed eagle on a yellow field. Dated Brughes, September 6, 1916, it would have been painted in occupied Belgium. Text, in Russian, ends "Huzzah!"

Original hand-painted watercolor by E.R. of the Russian Imperial flag with with double-headed eagle on a yellow field. Dated Brughes, September 6, 1916, it would have been painted in occupied Belgium. Text, in Russian, ends "Huzzah!"

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Text, in Russian, ends Huzzah!

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After defeat in the Russo-Japanese war and the Revolution of 1905, Tsar Nicholas II, instituted political reforms, creating the Duma, an elected assembly which he suspended when he could, and called when he had to.

Aided by French financing, Russia modernized, improving its railroads and military. With France and Britain, Russia formed the Triple Entente .

In 1914, Russia was victorious over Austria-Hungary, but was defeated by Germany, particularly in the Battle of Tannenberg which cost Russia an army.

The 1915 German-Austro-Hungarian Gorlice-Tarnow Offensive was the war's great breakthrough, one that lasted for months, created 10,000,000 refugees, and drove Russian forces from territory the size of France. Russian suffered over 1,500,000 casualties. Anti-war protests increased.

In 1916, France, beseiged at Verdun, requested Russian aid. General Brusilov responded with an offensive, Russia's greatest victory of the war, but one that cost 1,000,000 casualties.

Strikes and protests in 1917 led to a revolution that deposed the Tsar on March 15. The new government was committed to the war, and, in July, launched Russia's last major offensive, and another disaster.

Defending against a conservative coup, the government armed Bolsheviks it had recently imprisoned. The coup failed, but the armed Bolsheviks remained. Lenin, their leader, was the most consistent anti-war voice, and support for his party grew among workers and soldiers. In the October Revolution, his party seized power. The new government negotiated the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers, as it tried to consolidate power in the Russian Civil War.

Russia is a country in Europe.

More about Russia:

Country: Russia
A sample pie chart graphic

Statistics for Russia (1)

Type Statistic
Population 168,000,000

Places in Russia (8)

Click to View Location Type
Archangel City
Bessarabia Region
Brest-Litovsk City
Finland Region
Moscow City
Petrograd City
Vladivostock City
Warsaw City

People from Russia (8)

Last Name First Name Full Name Role
Brusilov Alexsei Alexsei Brusilov
Kerensky Alexander Alexander Kerensky
Lenin Vladimir Vladimir Lenin
Nicholas, Grand Duke Nicholas Grand Duke Nicholas
Rennenkampf Paul Paul von Rennenkampf
Romanoff Nicholas Nicholas II
Trotsky Leon Leon Trotsky
Yudenich Nikolai Nikolai Yudenich

Books about Russia (17)

Title Author Last Name Author First Name
Collected Diplomatic Documents Relating to the Outbreak of the European War
1917: Russia's Year of Revolution Bainton Roy
White Guard Bulgakov Mikail
Nurse at the Russian Front, a Diary 1914-18 Farmborough Florence
Revolutionary Russia 1891-1991: a History Figes Orlando
The Russian Revolution (Second Edition) Fitzpatrick Sheila
The Spectre of Alexander Wolf Gazdanov Gaito
Russia Leaves the War Kennan George F.
Russia and History's Turning Point Kerensky Alexander
Sikorsky S-16 Mikheyev Vadim
The Russian Revolution Moorehead Alan
Three 'Whys' of the Russian Revolution Pipes Richard
White Nights and Other Russian Impressions Ruhl Arthur
The Birth of Russian Democracy Sack A. J.
Lenin and the Russian Revolution Salomoni Antonella
The Eastern Front, 1914-1917 Stone Norman
Memories of the Russian Court Viroubova Anna