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The Dardanelles

The Dardanelles and the Gallipoli Peninsula, an inset from Collier's War Maps of the Dardanelles, the %+%Location%m%79%n%Sea of Marmora%-%, and the %+%Location%m%81%n%Bosphorus%-%.
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The Dardanelles, Scale of Miles, Main Roads, Railroads, Prop[osed] Railroads, Forts
Aegean Sea, Dardanelles, Gallipoli Peninsula, Gallipoli, Asia Minor, Cape Helles, Suvla Bay, shore batteries, and other place names.

The Dardanelles and the Gallipoli Peninsula, an inset from Collier's War Maps of the Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmora, and the Bosphorus.

Image text

The Dardanelles, Scale of Miles, Main Roads, Railroads, Prop[osed] Railroads, Forts

Aegean Sea, Dardanelles, Gallipoli Peninsula, Gallipoli, Asia Minor, Cape Helles, Suvla Bay, shore batteries, and other place names.

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The Dardanelles is a strait connecting the Aegean Sea and the western end of the Sea of Marmora. On the northern shore is the Gallipoli Peninsula in European Turkey. The south coast is Turkey in Asia Minor.

The Bosphorus connects the eastern end of the Sea of Marmora to the Black Sea. The sea link between the Mediterranean and Black Seas - the Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmora, and the Bosphorus - was critical to Russia and its Black Sea ports. Without it, the country had no other European port that was ice-free through the year.

After neutral Turkey entered the war in October 1914, the Entente Allies hoped to seize the Turkish capital of Constantinople, overthrow the government, and replace it with one that was allied or again neutral.

The first attempt to achieve this was the Allied naval effort to force the Dardanelles in March 1915. With the failure of the most significant attack on March 18, the Allies turned to an invasion of the Gallipoli Peninsula, begun on April 25. In each landing (at three locations), in each renewed attack, the Turkish defenders held. By January 9, 1916, the Entente Ally forces had evacuated the Peninsula, defeated by the Turks. The Allies and the Turks each suffered about 250,000 casualties.

During the Dardanelles and Gallipoli campaigns, both French and British submarines operated in the Dardanelles and Sea of Marmora.

The Dardanelles is a strait.