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Champagne-Marne Offensive

In July 1915, British and German forces fought three engagements in Hooge, a village near Ypres with a destroyed chateau held by the Germans, and its stables held by the British. A British mine on July 19 opened a crater 120 feet across. On July 30, the Germans attacked with flamethrowers, the first time the British had faced the weapon. Map from Military Operations France and Belgium, 1915, Vol. II, by Brigadier-General J.E. Edmonds and Captain G.C. Wynne. Map by Major A.F. Becke R.A. (Retired) Hon. M.A. (Oxon.)
Text:
Sketch 14
Hooge, 30th and 31st July 1915.
The Liquid-Fire Attack

Legend:
German Front Line before the Attack
German Front Line at the close of the Action
British trenches, captured or evacuated
British Front Line at the close of the Action
British trenches
Unoccupied crater

In July 1915, British and German forces fought three engagements in Hooge, a village near Ypres with a destroyed chateau held by the Germans, and its stables held by the British. A British mine on July 19 opened a crater 120 feet across. On July 30, the Germans attacked with flamethrowers, the first time the British had faced the weapon. Map from Military Operations France and Belgium, 1915, Vol. II, by Brigadier-General J.E. Edmonds and Captain G.C. Wynne. Map by Major A.F. Becke R.A. (Retired) Hon. M.A. (Oxon.)

Image text

Sketch 14

Hooge, 30th and 31st July 1915.

The Liquid-Fire Attack



Legend:

German Front Line before the Attack

German Front Line at the close of the Action

British trenches, captured or evacuated

British Front Line at the close of the Action

British trenches

Unoccupied crater

Other views: Larger

After the failures of Operations Michael and Georgette to break the British on the Somme and in Flanders, the success of the Second Battle of the Aisne in putting German guns 56 miles from Paris, and the modest success of the Noyon-Montdidier Offensive, General Erich Ludendorff turned back to Champagne and the Marne and tried to build on the success of the Second Battle of the Aisne, extending the front.

On the right wing of the German line, the Seventh German Army under Boehn was tasked with crossing the Marne towards Epernay; on the left wing, the First Army under Mudra was to advance towards the Marne, encircling Rheims. Opposing them were three French armies, the Sixth Army holding the French left, the Fifth (Buat) in the center, and the Fourth under Gouraud on the Allied right. The American Third Division was in the line with the French Sixth Army. The French Fifth Army included two Italian divisions.

The French had ample warning of the impending attack from prisoners and air reconnaissance. As Ludendorff prepared his offensive, General Ferdinand Foch prepared an Allied counter-attack for July 18.

Having the exact time of the German assault, the French again, as in the Noyon-Montdidier Offensive, launched a counter-barrage against the German troops as they formed for the attack. On July 15, Ludendorff struck again WHY AGAIN? on either side of Rheims. The assault east of Rheims ended on the first day after making little headway. Southwest of the city, the Italian divisions fell back and the Germans crossed the Marne.

On July 17, Foch brought the French Ninth Army under Mitry into the battle, moving against the German advance from the Marne. The American Third Division anchored the French left wing, and held its ground. Between the Americans and Rheims, the French fell back luring the Germans forward. [Taylor, 230]

1918-07-15

1918-07-17

Champagne-Marne Offensive is part of Germany's 1918 Offensives on the Western Front.