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Map of Galicia, Austria-Hungary showing the the fortress of Przemyśl, the cities of Cracow (Cracovie) and Lemberg, and the Bug and Dniester Rivers. Austria-Hungary lost most of the territory to Russia in 1914, and, with Germany's aid, regained it in the Gorlice-Tarnow Offensive of 1915.
Text:
Galicie Occidentale
Légende
Cours d'eau
Chemin de fer et Station
Montagne
Limite de l'Etat
H. Verchy et J. Delcroix
Reproduction interdite.
Western Galicia
Legend
Rivers
Railway and Station
Mountains
National Borders
Verchy H. and J. Delcroix
Reproduction prohibited.

Map of Galicia, Austria-Hungary showing the the fortress of Przemyśl, the cities of Cracow (Cracovie) and Lemberg, and the Bug and Dniester Rivers. Austria-Hungary lost most of the territory to Russia in 1914, and, with Germany's aid, regained it in the Gorlice-Tarnow Offensive of 1915.

Postcard from a series on the Armies of the European War of 1914. The French Army included units from its African colonies including Morocco and Senegal, and the Départment of Algeria.

Text:
Guerre Européenne 1914
Armée Française
[Mounted]
Dragon, Cuirassier, Spahi (petite tenue), Chasseur d'Afrique, Chasseur a cheval, Hussard, Gendarme
[Foot]
Artilleur morté, Train des Equipages, Garde Républicaine (grande tenue), Tirailleur Senégalais, Tirailleur Algerien, Zouave, Infanterie de ligne, Chasseur à pied, Matelot, Génie, Infanterie de marine, Chasseur Alpin

Déposé J.C 8-9

European War 1914 
French Army
[Mounted] 
Dragoon, Cuirassier , Spahi (field dress), African Chasseur, Mounted Chasseur, Hussar, Policeman
[Foot] 
Gunner, Train Crew, Republican Guard (full dress), Senegalese infantryman, Algerian infantryman, Zouave, Line Infantry, Chasseur,
Sailor, Engineer, Marine, Alpine Chasseur

Filed J.C 8-9

Postcard from a series on the Armies of the European War of 1914. The French Army included units from its African colonies including Morocco and Senegal, and the Départment of Algeria.

A Swiss postcard of 'The European War' in 1914. The Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary face enemies to the east, west, and south. Germany is fighting the war it tried to avoid, battling Russia to the east and France to the west. Germany had also hoped to avoid fighting England which came to the aid of neutral (and prostrate) Belgium, and straddles the Channel. Austria-Hungary also fights on two fronts, against Russia to the east and Serbia and Montenegro to the south. Italy, the third member of the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary, declared neutrality, and looks on. Other neutral nations include Spain, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania. Japan enters from the east to battle Germany. The German Fleet stays close to port in the North and Baltic Seas while a German Zeppelin targets England. The Austro-Hungarian Fleet keeps watch in the Adriatic. Turkey is not represented, and entered the war at the end of October, 1914; Italy in late May, 1915.
Text:
Der Europäische Krieg
The European War
Reverse:
Kriegskarte No. 61. Verlag K. Essig, Basel
Kunstanstalt (Art Institute) Frobenius A.G. Basel

A Swiss postcard of 'The European War' in 1914. The Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary face enemies to the east, west, and south. Germany is fighting the war it tried to avoid, battling Russia to the east and France to the west. Germany had also hoped to avoid fighting England which came to the aid of neutral (and prostrate) Belgium, and straddles the Channel. Austria-Hungary also fights on two fronts, against Russia to the east and Serbia and Montenegro to the south. Italy, the third member of the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary, declared neutrality, and looks on. Other neutral nations include Spain, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania. Japan enters from the east to battle Germany. The German Fleet stays close to port in the North and Baltic Seas while a German Zeppelin targets England. The Austro-Hungarian Fleet keeps watch in the Adriatic. Turkey is not represented, and entered the war at the end of October, 1914; Italy in late May, 1915.

The heck with the Zeppelins!
Screw the Zeppelins!
A French soldier and his lover couldn't care less about the Zeppelin raid in progress. It's hard to tell if he is holding a cigarette in his right hand, or giving a fig to the Zeppelin.
Text:
Zut pour les Zeppelins!
TPFuria 546
Reverse:
Visé. Paris. - L'at. D'Art. Phot. - Bois-Colombes

The heck with the Zeppelins!
Screw the Zeppelins!
A French soldier and his lover couldn't care less about the Zeppelin raid in progress. It's hard to tell if he is holding a cigarette in his right hand, or giving a fig to the Zeppelin.

The poet, novelist, and political activist Gabriele d'Annunzio speaking in favor of Italy's entry into the war on the side of the Entente Allies, and against 'Giolittismo' at the Costanzi Theater in Rome, May, 1915. Giovanni Giolitti was five-time Prime Minister of Italy, and opposed intervention in the Great War. Illustration by Achille Beltrame.
Text:
Le grandi manifestazioni contra il 'giolittismo'; Gabriele d'Annunzio parla al popolo di Roma, nel Theatro Costanzi.
The great demonstrations against the 'Giolittism'; Gabriele d'Annunzio speaks to the people of Rome, in Theatro Costanzi.

The poet, novelist, and political activist Gabriele d'Annunzio speaking in favor of Italy's entry into the war on the side of the Entente Allies, and against 'Giolittismo' at the Costanzi Theater in Rome, May, 1915. Giovanni Giolitti was five-time Prime Minister of Italy, and opposed intervention in the Great War. Illustration by Achille Beltrame.

Quotations found: 8

Thursday, June 17, 1915

"Mackensen's reorganised Army Group resumed the offensive on 12th June [1915], launched its main assault on the following day, and by the 17th had forced the Russians back to the line Rava Russkaya — Zolkiew, while Austrian Second Army had reached the vicinity of Lemberg.

That day STAVKA met at Cholm to consider the situation. The front along the Vistula was threatened with outflanking on both sides — from East Prussia to the north, since the Mazurian winter campaign, and now from Galicia and the Bukovina. There was no possibility of a counter-offensive to restore the situation, since the deficiency of small arms existing in July 1914 had never been made up, and shortage of artillery and shells precluded adequate support for any infantry attacks that might be essayed. There was no alternative to the abandonment of Galicia, . . ."
((1), more)

Friday, June 18, 1915

". . . crowned with thousands of half-naked and still bleeding bodies, lying in heaps, tangled, as if in a last embrace in death. Fathers, brothers, sons and grandsons lay as they fell from the bullets or the murderers' yatagans. Heartbeats were still pumping the life-blood out of some slashed throats. Flocks of vultures sat on top of the heap, picking the eyes out of the dead and dying, whose rigid gaze still seemed to mirror terror and inexpressible pain, while carrion dogs sank their sharp teeth into entrails still pulsing with life." ((2), more)

Friday, June 18, 1915

"When Buchanan and I met at the Ministry for Foreign Affairs this morning, the same idea was in our minds:

'To-day is the centenary of Waterloo!'

But this is not the time for the ironic pleasures of historical comparison . . ."
((3), more)

Saturday, June 19, 1915

"Standing up in the car and looking back, we watched the river of war wind toward us. Cavalry, artillery, lancers, infantry, sappers and miners, trench-diggers, road-makers, stretcher-bearers, they swept on as smoothly as if in holiday order. Through the dust, the sun picked out the flash of lances and the gloss of chargers' flanks, flushed rows and rows of determined faces found the least touch of gold on faded uniforms, silvered the sad grey of mitrailleuses and munition waggons. Close as the men were, they seemed allegorically splendid: as if, under the arch of the sunset, we had been watching the whole French army ride straight into glory. . ." ((4), more)

Sunday, June 20, 1915

". . . In the Argonne the Germans attacked on the 20th June [1915], and a series of fights went on until the 14th July, both sides losing very heavily; and as a consequence General Sarrail was removed on the 22nd July from the command of the French Third Army, and replaced by General Humbert. In Woevre there was almost continuous trench warfare in the woods of Ailly, Mort Mare and Le Pretre, whilst in Alsace the enemy was driven out of Metzeral, and Barrenkopf was captured. These local attacks, necessary as they were until a general offensive could be mounted, resulted in very heavy casualties and absorbed a vast quantity of the limited munitions available. The lack of any signal success somewhat shook the reputation of General Joffre with his Government, but in no way depressed the morale of his troops, as was to be shown, seven months later, at Verdun." ((5), more)


Quotation contexts and source information

Thursday, June 17, 1915

(1) When German General August von Mackensen began his combined German-Austro-Hungarian Gorlice-Tarnow Offensive on May 2, 1915, he did so with an overwhelming artillery barrage for which the Russians had no response. More than any other major combatant nation, Russia failed to address its shell shortage, which included artillery, shells, rifles, and ammunition of all kinds. Although Russia had conquered, lost, and reconquered Bukovina and most of Galicia in 1914 and 1915, Stavka, the Russian High Command, began a retreat of hundreds of miles that would not stop for months.

Carpathian Disaster: Death of an Army by Geoffrey Jukes, page 54, copyright © Geoffrey Jukes 1971, publisher: Ballantine, publication date: 1971

Friday, June 18, 1915

(2) Rafael de Nogales was a Venezuelan mercenary and officer in the Ottoman Army who had taken part in the Turkish attack on the Armenian rebellion in the city of Van. Sairt (Siirt) is a city southwest of Lake Van. Along with the Armenian population that fell victim to the Turkish Government's genocide, the Assyrian population was also targeted. The yatagan was an Ottoman knife or short sword.

The Beauty and the Sorrow: An Intimate History of the First World War by Peter Englund, pp. 139, 140, copyright © 2009 by Peter England, publisher: Vintage Books, publication date: 2012

Friday, June 18, 1915

(3) From the entry for June 18, 1915 from the memoir of Maurice Paléologue, French Ambassador to Russia, meeting the British Ambassador, George Buchanan in St. Petersburg, Russia.

An Ambassador's Memoirs Vol. II by Maurice Paléologue, page 14, publisher: George H. Doran Company

Saturday, June 19, 1915

(4) American author Edith Wharton visited the French battle fronts in 1915, and, after writing from Paris, Lorraine and the Vosges, and Argonne, was on her way to the north, behind the Belgian and British front, when her car inched through French troops moving west. Writing on June 19, 1915, she found the fields of Artois untouched. She was well west of where the French had been fighting the Second Battle of Artois since May 9.

Fighting France by Edith Wharton, pp. 139, 140, copyright © 1915, by Charles Scribner's Sons, publisher: Charles Scribner's Sons, publication date: 1915

Sunday, June 20, 1915

(5) From a summary of 'the French Front: June-September 1915' by Brigadier-General Sir James E. Edmonds in his history of British military operations. French Commander in Chief Joseph Joffre continued a strategy of attacks — which he referred to as nibbling at the enemy — even though it had become clear that success would require adequate artillery. With a shell shortage less serious than the British (and especially the Russians), the French still had inadequate heavy artillery and shells for major offensives. Relieved of command in the Argonne, General Sarrail would later be given command on the Salonica Front. The Battle of Verdun began on February 21, 1916.

Military Operations France and Belgium, 1915, Vol. II, Battles of Aubers Ridge, Festubert, and Loos by J. E. Edmonds, page 109, copyright © asserted, publisher: Macmillan and Co., Limited, publication date: 1928


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