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The green harp flag of Ireland, evidently both with and without the bust of a woman, was the flag of the short-lived Confederation of Kilkenny (1642-1649), and an unofficial flag of Ireland thereafter.
Text:
Lift up Erin's flag, let its folds to the breeze;
May it wave o'er the land, May it float o'er the seas.
Erin go bragh
Ireland forever

The green harp flag of Ireland, evidently both with and without the bust of a woman, was the flag of the short-lived Confederation of Kilkenny (1642-1649), and an unofficial flag of Ireland thereafter.

Cavalry commander Manfred von Richthofen visits his wounded son, the more famous Manfred von Richthofen, wounded by gunner second Lieutenant A.E. Woodbridge on July 6, 1917 in a fight with an FE2b of 20 Squadron.
Text:
Der Vater besucht den verwundeten Sohn.
The father visits the wounded son.

Cavalry commander Manfred von Richthofen visits his wounded son, the more famous Manfred von Richthofen, wounded by gunner second Lieutenant A.E. Woodbridge on July 6, 1917 in a fight with an FE2b of 20 Squadron.

1917 original pen and ink drawing of a sentry in the dunes of the Belgian coast viewing a ship on the horizon. Possibly by W Wenber, Leading Seaman.
Text:
Gescreiben den . . . 1917 (Written the . . . 1917; printed text, the '7' handwritten)
Küstenwacht an der belgischen Küste 
Gaz. A. Wenber Obermatrose
(Coastguard on the Belgian Coast, by? W Wenber, Leading Seaman)

1917 original pen and ink drawing of a sentry in the dunes of the Belgian coast viewing a ship on the horizon. Possibly by W Wenber, Leading Seaman.

A map of the Belgian battlefield from Bruges to Ostend and the Belgian coast to Blankenburg. German forces took Ostend on October 17, 1914. Bruges was an important German submarine base with canals connecting it to the North Sea ports of Ostend and Zeebrugge, ports the British attacked the night of April 22–23, 1918 in an attempt to block the canals. Zeebrugge is just off the map to the right.
Text:
Belgischer Kriegsschauplatz
Ostende, Blankenberghe u. Brügge
Belgian battlefield
Ostend, Bruges and Blankenberghe
Reverse:
Belgische Küste
Verzweiflungskämpfe der Verbündeten. Siegreiches Vordringen der Deutschen. 17 October Ostende eingenommen.
(Belgian coast
Desperate struggles of the allies. Victorious advance of the Germans. 17 October Ostend taken.)
Kunstverlag Eug. Felle, Isny, Wttbg. (Art publisher Eug. Furs, Isny, ​​Wittenburg??.)

A map of the Belgian battlefield from Bruges to Ostend and the Belgian coast to Blankenburg. German forces took Ostend on October 17, 1914. Bruges was an important German submarine base with canals connecting it to the North Sea ports of Ostend and Zeebrugge, ports the British attacked the night of April 22–23, 1918 in an attempt to block the canals. Zeebrugge is just off the map to the right.

Detail from the Memorial to the French Moroccan Division at Vimy Ridge. The theaters and battles in which the division played a role are recorded on the sides of the monument.
Text:
1918
La Lorraine
January 8 - Flirey
the Somme
April 26 - Villers-Bretonneux, Bois de Hangard
the Aisne
May 30 - Vauxbuin, Chazelle
June 12 - Ambleny
July 18 to 20 - Dommiers Chaudum
September 2 to 8 - Terny-Sorny, Moulin de Laffaux, Allemant
November 11 - Victory
November 17 - Entree a Chateau-Salins

Detail from the Memorial to the French Moroccan Division at Vimy Ridge. The theaters and battles in which the division played a role are recorded on the sides of the monument. © 2013, John M. Shea

Quotations found: 7

Saturday, April 20, 1918

". . . the largest and most representative meeting ever held in Tralee and the most united in its determination to fulfil the object for which it was called, was the assembly in the square last night. The outstanding feature of the meeting was the attendance and cooperation of people who were hitherto diametrically opposed to each other in national principles, Sinn Fiéners, Redmondites, pro-British etc." ((1), more)

Sunday, April 21, 1918

"Heeresbericht vom 24. April 1918

Rittmeister Freiherr von Richthofen ist von der Verfolgung eines Gegners über dem Schlachtfelde an der Somme nicht zurückgekehrt. Nach englischem Bericht ist er gefallen.

Army report of 24 April 1918

Captain Freiherr von Richthofen has not returned from the pursuit of an enemy on the battlefield on the Somme. According to English report he has fallen."
((2), more)

Monday, April 22, 1918

"There was a moment immediately [after the wind change dispersed the smoke screen] when it seemed to those on the ships as if the dim coast and the hidden harbor exploded into light. A star shell soared aloft, then a score of star shells; the wavering beams of the searchlights swung round and settled to a glare; the wildfire of gun flashes leaped against the sky; strings of luminous green beads shot aloft, hung and sank; and the darkness of the night was supplanted by the nightmare daylight of battle fires. Guns and machine guns along the Mole and batteries ashore awoke to life, and it was in a gale of shelling that Vindictive laid her nose against the thirty-foot high concrete side of the Mole, let go an anchor, and signed to Daffodil to shove her stern in. Iris went ahead and endeavored to get alongside likewise." ((3), more)

Tuesday, April 23, 1918

"I regret that the effort to block Ostend did not succeed. The Brilliant, Commander A. R. Godsal, with the Sirius, Lieutenant-Commander H. N. M. Hardy, in her wake, did not sight the buoy [marking the channel into Ostend harbour] in its charted position at midnight, as was expected. When the Ostend piers should have been seen, breakers were observed on the Brilliant's starboard bow, and although her helm was put to starboard, she grounded. The Sirius immediately put her helm hard over and her engines full astern, but being already badly damaged by gunfire, she did not answer her helm and collided with the Brilliant's port quarter. Both being then fast ashore, one with her port engine immovable, the other in a sinking condition, they were blown up where they were stranded." ((4), more)

Wednesday, April 24, 1918

"The counter attack [at Villers-Bretonneux], executed the night of the 24–25th, was entrusted to some Australian battalions. They carried the high ground and the village by assault while, on the right, the Moroccan Division of the French First Army regained some ground north of Hangard. In order to consolidate the reëstablished situation, General Debeney continued his movement forward, while at the same time General Fayolle sent two divisions northwards, so as to be in a position to intervene between the Somme and the Luce." ((5), more)


Quotation contexts and source information

Saturday, April 20, 1918

(1) Excerpt from The Kerryman for April 20, 1918. The execution of many of the leaders of the 1916 Easter Rising in Ireland had united Irish opposition to British rule as the Rising itself did not. The passage two years later of a Conscription Bill that extended to all of Ireland and not only the northern province of Ulster, introduced in the House of Commons by Prime Minister Lloyd George on April 9, 1918, brought together Irish across the political spectrum. The bill followed Operation Michael, which had driven the British from over 700 square miles of territory, and was introduced the same day that Operation Georgette began. Tralee is the county town of the county of Kerry in southwest Ireland.

A Nation and Not a Rabble: The Irish Revolution 1913–1923 by Diarmaid Ferriter, page 174, copyright © Diarmaid Ferriter, 2015, publisher: The Overlook Press

Sunday, April 21, 1918

(2) Manfred von Richthofen, greatest ace of World War One, was killed on April 21, 1918, his plane, a Fokker Dr.I, landing behind British lines.

Der rote Kampflieger by Manfred Freiherr von Richthofen, page 239, copyright © 1933 by Ullstein A.G., Berlin, publisher: Im Verlag Ullstein, publication date: 1933

Monday, April 22, 1918

(3) Excerpt from a British Admiralty statement on the April 22–23, 1918 raid on Ostend and Zeebrugge, ports on the North Sea connected to the German submarine base at Bruges (Brugge) by canals. Under the command of Roger Keyes, the British raided the two coastal cities to block the canals, sinking aging warships across them. The flotilla had already set out twice before, but had been turned back by weather conditions. But on the 22nd, eight monitors, six old cruisers, eight light cruisers, fifty-two destroyers, sixty-two motor launches, twenty-four coastal motorboats, two submarines, two Mersey River ferryboats, and one picket boat, bearing nearly one thousand men, made their way, the coastal motorboats laying and maintaining the smokescreen. At 11:56 PM the wind shift exposed the fleet to the batteries on shore and on the two-mile long breakwater, the Mole. The Vindictive was the primary landing craft, and was held in place against the Mole for much of the operation by Daffodil, one of the ferries.

The Great Events of the Great War in Seven Volumes by Charles F. Horne, Vol. VI, 1918, p. 134, copyright © 1920 by The National Alumnia, publisher: The National Alumni, publication date: 1920

Tuesday, April 23, 1918

(4) Excerpt from the report of Roger Keyes on the attempt to block the canal from Ostend to Bruges, Belgium, the night of April 22–23, 1918. The North Sea ports of Ostend and Zeebrugge were connected to the German submarine base at Bruges by canals. The British raid on the two ports was an attempt to block the canals, sinking aging warships across them. The operation had some success at Zeebrugge, maneuvering blockships into the canal. At Ostend it was unsuccessful, in part because the Germans had moved a buoy on which the raiders were relying.

Naval Battles of the First World War by Geoffrey Bennett, page 276, copyright © Geoffrey Bennett 1968, 1974, publisher: Pan Books, publication date: 1983

Wednesday, April 24, 1918

(5) German commander Erich Ludendorff's 1918 drive for victory began on March 21 with Operation Michael, an attack north and south of the Somme River. In April he moved north to the Lys River on the Franco-Belgian border with Operation Georgette. On April 23, after three weeks of relative quiet, he again struck the Somme sector, seizing Villers-Bretonneux from the British and Hangard from the French, high ground that threatened further progress westward towards Amiens. The villages of Villers-Bretonneux and Hangard are south of the Somme, between it and the Luce River.

The Memoirs of Marshal Foch, translated by Col. T. Bentley Mott by Ferdinand Foch, page 296, copyright © 1931 by Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc., publisher: Doubleday, Doran & Co., publication date: 1931


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