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The poet, novelist, and political activist Gabriele d'Annunzio speaking in favor of Italy's entry into the war on the side of the Entente Allies, and against 'Giolittismo' at the Costanzi Theater in Rome, May, 1915. Giovanni Giolitti was five-time Prime Minister of Italy, and opposed intervention in the Great War. Illustration by Achille Beltrame.
Text:
Le grandi manifestazioni contra il 'giolittismo'; Gabriele d'Annunzio parla al popolo di Roma, nel Theatro Costanzi.
The great demonstrations against the 'Giolittism'; Gabriele d'Annunzio speaks to the people of Rome, in Theatro Costanzi.

The poet, novelist, and political activist Gabriele d'Annunzio speaking in favor of Italy's entry into the war on the side of the Entente Allies, and against 'Giolittismo' at the Costanzi Theater in Rome, May, 1915. Giovanni Giolitti was five-time Prime Minister of Italy, and opposed intervention in the Great War. Illustration by Achille Beltrame.

Image text: The great demonstrations against the 'Giolittism'; Gabriele d'Annunzio speaks to the people of Rome, in Theatro Costanzi.

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A squadron of the %+%Organization%m%57%n%German Imperial Navy%-% under the eye of a Zeppelin off the North Sea island and port of %+%Location%m%54%n%Helgoland%-%.
Text:
Deutscher Geschwader vor Helgoland
German squadron off Heligoland
Logo, bottom left: M Dieterle, Kiel
bottom right: PH 125
Handwritten: 1915
Reverse:
Verlag: M Dieterle, Kiel.

A squadron of the German Imperial Navy under the eye of a Zeppelin off the North Sea island and port of Helgoland.

Image text: Deutscher Geschwader vor Helgoland

German squadron off Heligoland

Logo, bottom left: M Dieterle, Kiel

bottom right: PH 125

Handwritten: 1915

Reverse:

Verlag: M Dieterle, Kiel.

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Allied Commanders Henri Philippe Pétain, Douglas Haig, Ferdinand Foch, and John J. Pershing. Foch was Allied Commander in Chief, the other men commanders of the French Army, the British Expeditionary Force, and the American Expeditionary Force respectively. From %i1%The Memoirs of Marshall Foch%i0% by Marshall Foch.
Text:
Commanders of the Allies in 1918 and their autographs.
Pétain Haig Foch Pershing

Allied Commanders Henri Philippe Pétain, Douglas Haig, Ferdinand Foch, and John J. Pershing. Foch was Allied Commander in Chief, the other men commanders of the French Army, the British Expeditionary Force, and the American Expeditionary Force respectively. From The Memoirs of Marshall Foch by Marshall Foch.

Image text: Commanders of the Allies in 1918 and their autographs.

Pétain Haig Foch Pershing

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Cover to the sheet music for 'Good-bye Broadway, Hello France,' the 'big song hit of 'Passing Show of 1917' at N.Y. Winter Garden,' lyrics by C. Francis Reisner and Benny Davis, music by Billy Baskette. Standing in New York, General John J. Pershing shakes hands over the Atlantic with a Ferdinand-Foch-like French general.

Cover to the sheet music for 'Good-bye Broadway, Hello France,' the 'big song hit of 'Passing Show of 1917' at N.Y. Winter Garden,' lyrics by C. Francis Reisner and Benny Davis, music by Billy Baskette. Standing in New York, General John J. Pershing shakes hands over the Atlantic with a Ferdinand-Foch-like French general.

Image text: Big song hit of 'Passing Show of 1917' at N.Y. Winter Garden



Good-bye Broadway, Hello France



Words by C. Francis Reisner and Benny Davis



Music by Billy Baskette

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Sunday, May 30, 1915

"The insatiable war machine had an additional 40 million bodies to draw upon for cannon fodder, a new front was created from Switzerland to the Adriatic, and the stalemate continued. It was a very difficult front, much of it in the high Alps, in a setting of natural grandeur, but truly more suited to the destruction of human life than to it preservation." ((1), more)

Tuesday, May 30, 1916

"Hipper and his battle cruisers sailed from the Jade at 1 A.M. on the 31st [May, 1916], and Scheer and the main portion of the High Sea Fleet sailed from the Jade and the Elbe shortly afterward. The British were already at sea. Room 40 had been able to warn the Admiralty that the Germans were preparing to put to sea, and at 5:40 on the afternoon of 30 May, the Admiralty ordered Jellicoe, who along with Beatty had already been alerted, to concentrate in the Long Forties. By 10:30 the Grand Fleet had sailed from Scapa Flow and the Moray Firth, and Beatty sailed from the Firth of Forth at 11:00." ((2), more)

Wednesday, May 30, 1917

"On May 30 [1917], just before the period of the most extreme incidents, Pétain's staff offered an explanation of the causes of the mutinies. After acknowledging that 'indiscipline in the army comes from a variety of sources of which the relative importance cannot be ascertained,' the report broke the causes down into two categories: 'those which come from the conditions on the front, [and] those which are the result of external influences on this life.' Among the causes associated with life on the front were weakness of the military justice system, inadequate number of leaves, lack of rest between battles, and drunkenness. Among the external causes were pacifist propaganda, unfavorable orientation of the press, and ideas about peace stemming from the Russian revolution." ((3), more)

Thursday, May 30, 1918

". . . received the news of the great capture of stores at Fère-en-Tardenois, and particularly of an American dump of almost fantastic proportions. This gave us our first impression of the American Army. We realised with what prodigious resources of material the U.S. troops were supported. We were destined not long afterwards to make the acquaintance of fresh American troops in action west of Château Thierry and in the Bois de Belleau. There I was to see young regiments coming on in masses, exactly the same as earlier in the war I had seen the Russians advance. The difference was that unlike the Russians, the Americans were supported by a volume of fire we could never have concentrated owing to our diminished resources in ammunition." ((4), more)

Quotation contexts and source information

Sunday, May 30, 1915

(1) Until May 23, 1915 when it declared war on Austria-Hungary, Italy was the only great power not at war. The Entente Allies expected that Italy's entry in the war would quickly lead to the defeat of first Austria-Hungary, then Germany. As René Albrecht-Carrié writes, the Italian front was very difficult terrain.

Italy from Napoleon to Mussolini by René Albrecht-Carrié, page 102, copyright © 1950 Columbia University Press, publisher: Columbia University Press, publication date: 1960

Tuesday, May 30, 1916

(2) At the end of May, 1916, the German and British moved into the North Sea with similar plans and deployments: a squadron of half a dozen ships to lure the enemy into the guns of a large battle fleet. Admiral Reinhard Scheer commanded the German High Sea Fleet, and Rear Admiral Franz Hipper his smaller battle squadron. Their British counterparts were Admiral John Jellicoe commanding the Grand Fleet, with David Beatty at the helm of his squadron. Room 40 was home to the British Admiralty cryptographers armed with copies of German code books, one that had been found on the body of a German officer by the Russians. The Jade and Elbe Rivers lead from the ports of Hamburg and Bremerhaven to the North Sea.

A Naval History of World War I by Paul G. Halpern, page 315, copyright © 1994 by the United States Naval Institute, publisher: UCL Press, publication date: 1994

Wednesday, May 30, 1917

(3) After the failure of French commander in chief Robert Nivelle's 1917 spring offensive — the Second Battle of the Aisne, begun on April 16 — an offensive that Nivelle had asserted would provide the breakthrough of the German line that would lead to victory, mutinous incidents broke out in the French army, particularly among the troops that had suffered the highest rates of casualties in the offensive. The mutinies were of greater or lesser severity, beginning in April, with the most serious incidents in May and June. Nivelle, whom soldiers and politicians had both lost faith in, was replaced by General Henri Phillippe Pétain. The Russian Revolution of March provided a model for some soldiers.

Pyrrhic Victory; French Strategy and Operations in the Great War by Robert A. Doughty, page 362, copyright © 2005 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College, publisher: Harvard University Press, publication date: 2005

Thursday, May 30, 1918

(4) Excerpt from an account of the Aisne Offensive, the Third German Drive of 1918, by Major-General A. D. von Unruh, Chief of the General Staff, 4th Reserve Corps. American commander General John J. Pershing planned to field an American Army under American command, and was preparing for the offensives of 1919 when German commander Erich Ludendorff made his bid for victory with repeated offensives in 1918. Pershing had been transporting both arms and men to Europe until Britain, desperate for men, offered to transport American troops, bringing 250,000 of them towards the battle each month. Going into battle in 1918 the Americans relied on British and French tanks and planes.

The Last of the Ebb: the Battle of the Aisne, 1918 by Sidney Rogerson, page 143, copyright © Sidney Rogerson, 1937, publisher: Frontline Books, publication date: 2011