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Helmuth von Moltke, Chief of the German General Staff from 1906 to 1914. He commanded Germany's armies at the beginning of the war, but was replaced after the German %+%Event%m%18%n%defeat at the Marne%-%.
Text:
Exz. von Moltke, Chef des Generalstabes der deutschen Armee am Schreibtisch sitzend 
Chief of General Staff of the German army sitting at his desk.
Photochemie, Berlin 2583
Reverse: divider, address, and stamp registration lines only

Helmuth von Moltke, Chief of the German General Staff from 1906 to 1914. He commanded Germany's armies at the beginning of the war, but was replaced after the German defeat at the Marne.

Image text: Exz. von Moltke, Chef des Generalstabes der deutschen Armee am Schreibtisch sitzend



Chief of General Staff of the German army sitting at his desk.



Photochemie, Berlin 2583

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Russian troops fleeing a solitary German soldier. The Russian First Army invaded Germany in August 1914, and defeated the Germans in the Battle of Gumbinnen on the 20th. In September the Germans drove them out of Russia in the First Battle of the Masurian Lakes. In September and October, a joint German, Austro-Hungarian offensive drove the Russians back almost to Warsaw. Illustration by E. H. Nunes.
Text:
Die Russen haben große Hoffnungen auf den Krieg gesetzt, - es ist aber auch eine Kehrseite dabei.
The Russians have set high hopes for the war - but there is also a downside to that.
Reverse:
Kriegs-Postkarte der Meggendorfer-Blätter, München. Nr. 25
War postcard of the Meggendorfer Blätter, Munich. # 25

Russian troops fleeing a solitary German soldier. The Russian First Army invaded Germany in August 1914, and defeated the Germans in the Battle of Gumbinnen on the 20th. In September the Germans drove them out of Russia in the First Battle of the Masurian Lakes. In September and October, a joint German, Austro-Hungarian offensive drove the Russians back almost to Warsaw. Illustration by E. H. Nunes.

Image text: Die Russen haben große Hoffnungen auf den Krieg gesetzt, - es ist aber auch eine Kehrseite dabei.



The Russians have set high hopes for the war - but there is also a downside to that.



Reverse:

Kriegs-Postkarte der Meggendorfer-Blätter, München. Nr. 25



War postcard of the Meggendorfer Blätter, Munich. # 25

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The Serbian lion, wounded, bleeding, turns from the skeletal bodies of its cubs to face its enemy: his time for justice has come. In the background are images of Serbia burning and Serbians hung.
Text:
Tempus et Meum Jus
Time and My Justice
Serbia
Reverse:
Proprietà artistica riservata — Visto. Uff. Rev. Stampa Firenze 28-12-18-
Gino Matteucci-Firenze.

The Serbian lion, wounded, bleeding, turns from the skeletal bodies of its cubs to face its enemy: his time for justice has come. In the background are images of Serbia burning and Serbians hung.

Image text: Tempus et Meum Jus



Time and My Justice



Serbia



Reverse:

Proprietà artistica riservata — Visto. Uff. Rev. Stampa Firenze 28-12-18-

Gino Matteucci-Firenze.

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Russia's 1917 Offensive — the Kerensky Offensive — a pencil sketch of a Russian soldier fleeing his trench as Central Power bayonets rise over it. The failed offensive was Russia's last of the war. By Ger. F. Kollar, addressed to Frau Hermine Kollar of Vienna.
Text:
Russlands = Offensive 1917
Russia's 1917 Offensive
Ger. F. Kollar
Reverse:
Addressed to Frau Hermine Kollar, Wien
Hermione Kollar, Vienna

Russia's 1917 Offensive — the Kerensky Offensive — a pencil sketch of a Russian soldier fleeing his trench as Central Power bayonets rise over it. The failed offensive was Russia's last of the war. By Ger. F. Kollar, addressed to Frau Hermine Kollar of Vienna.

Image text: Russlands = Offensive 1917

Russia's 1917 Offensive

Ger. F. Kollar



Reverse:

Addressed to Frau Hermine Kollar, Wien

Hermione Kollar, Vienna

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Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, his wife Tsaritsa Alexandra, their four daughters and son, a portrait of the Russian imperial family in 'An Ambassador's Memoirs' by Maurice Paléologue, the last French Ambassador to the Russian Court.
Text:
The Imperial Family

Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, his wife Tsaritsa Alexandra, their four daughters and son, a portrait of the Russian imperial family in 'An Ambassador's Memoirs' by Maurice Paléologue, the last French Ambassador to the Russian Court.

Image text: The Imperial Family

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Friday, July 17, 1914

"If, contrary to expectations, Austria-Hungary should be compelled to take measures against Serbia, officials here count upon a localisation of the conflict, as England is altogether peacefully disposed, and France and Russia seem to be equally free from any belligerent inclinations. Senator Humbert's disclosures on the state of the French Army are seen as having come at a most opportune moment for the interests of world peace. To sum up, the Auswärtiges Amt [Foreign Office] does not take a pessimistic view of the situation and it has therefore also been decided not to upset the holiday and travelling arrangements of those in authority; nonetheless everyone is prepared for eventualities. . . ." ((1), more)

Saturday, July 17, 1915

". . . By 17th July, the Germans had advanced perhaps five miles, but they had inflicted seventy percent losses on the defenders (including 24,000 prisoners, a quarter of the Russian numbers). This coincided with Mackensen's successes at Krásnik and Krasnostaw. Alexeyev pulled back his troops to the Narev, with corresponding withdrawals to left and right.

. . . On 17th July, both Falkenhayn and Gallwitz—commanding the offensive—felt that they had planned things well enough. As the Germans came forward, they stumbled against increasing numbers of Russian troops, such that the 62 battalions and 188 guns that had faced the initial German attack rose to 100 and 600 respectively once the Germans arrived on the Narev. German attacks fared badly—the guns unprepared for Russian resistance, the troops defeated by machine-gunnery . . ."
((2), more)

Monday, July 17, 1916

"The Serbs, whom Sarrail planned would form the spearhead of his initial assault, began to move westward on July 17 in order to take over sixty miles of the front from the French well beyond the Vardar and facing the mountain peaks which marked the old frontier of their land. As the Serbs had been encamped ten miles southeast of Salonika, it was necessary for them to be brought through the outskirts of the town. There was little transport available; they marched along, chanting interminable patriotic ballads as they went, and all could see that the Serbian Army was resurrected. A chain of enemy agents, recruited from the peasantry of the Struma valley and the highland east of Salonika, spread the news up to the Bulgarian lines . . ." ((3), more)

Tuesday, July 17, 1917

"Apprehension about how the Russian troops on the Romanian Front would respond when the offensive began was reinforced by the arrival of negative reports concerning the Russian offensive on the Southwest Front, where, as Berthelot recorded, 'many regiments refuse to march.' There Russian forces had enjoyed initial success, breaking through enemy lines at Zloczow (1–3 July) and Stanislau-Kalusz (6–12 July). But heavy losses and the arrival of Austro-German reinforcements from other fronts stalled the Russian advance. On 17 July, enemy forces launched a counteroffensive that broke through the Russian lines. The entire front began to dissolve." ((4), more)

Wednesday, July 17, 1918

"When all were assembled, Yurovsky reentered the room, followed by his entire Cheka squad carrying revolvers. He stepped forward and declared quickly, 'Your relations have tried to save you. They have failed, and we must now shoot you.'

Nicholas, his arm still around Alexis, began to rise from his chair to protect his wife and son. He had just time to say 'What . . . ?' before Yurovsky pointed his revolver at the Tsar's head and fired. Nicholas died instantly. At this signal, the entire squad of executioners began to shoot. Alexandra had time only to raise her hand and make the sign of the cross before she too was killed by a single bullet. Olga, Tatiana, and Marie, standing behind their mother, were hit and died quickly. . . .

The room, filled with the smoke and stench of gunpowder, became suddenly quiet. Blood was running in streams from the bodies on the floor. Then there was a movement and a low groan. Alexis, lying on the floor still in the arms of the Tsar, feebly moved his hand to clutch his father's coat. Savagely, one of the executioners kicked the Tsarevich in the head with his heavy boot. Yurovsky stepped up and fired two shots into the boy's ear. Just at that moment, Anastasia, who had only fainted, regained consciousness and screamed. With bayonets and rifle butts, the entire band turned on her. In a moment, she too lay still. It was ended."
((5), more)

Quotation contexts and source information

Friday, July 17, 1914

(1) Excerpt from a report of July 17, 1914 from the Saxon Chargé d'Affaires in Berlin to the Saxon Minister for Foreign Affairs. Although Austria-Hungary is preparing to deliver an ultimatum to Serbia that it expects will be rejected, after which Austria-Hungary will war on Serbia, both Austria-Hungary and its ally Germany are striving to make it appear no such war is in the offing. Just as the Austro-Hungarian Minister of War and Chief of the General Staff are on leave, so too are Prussian Minister of War von Falkenhayn and German Chief of the General Staff von Moltke.

Journalist and French Senator Humbert wrote and spoke extensively about the inadequate state of the French Army.

July, 1914; the Outbreak of the First World War; Selected Documents by Imanuel Geiss (Editor), page 121, copyright © 1967 Imanuel Geiss, publisher: Charles Scribner's Sons, publication date: 1967

Saturday, July 17, 1915

(2) The German-Austro-Hungarian Gorlice-Tarnow Offensive, now in its third month, continued. Still holding the city of Warsaw and some of its defensive fortresses, the Russians mounted a defense that temporarily held the invaders at bay. Stavka, the Russian High Command, did not think the line would hold, and soon, on July 22, ordered a resumption of the Russian retreat. Mackensen and Gallwitz were German generals, Falkenhayn the German Commander in Chief.

The Eastern Front, 1914-1917 by Norman Stone, page 180, copyright © 1975 Norman Stone, publisher: Charles Scribner's Sons, publication date: 1975

Monday, July 17, 1916

(3) Victorious but weakened by Austria-Hungary's invasions in 1914, decimated by typhus in 1915, and overwhelmed by the 1915 invasion by Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Bulgaria, Serbia's government and the remains of its army fled to the Adriatic Sea and eventual transport by its allies to the island of Corfu to recuperate. In the spring and summer of 1916 it joined the Allied forces headquartered in Salonika, Greece, forces that originally deployed to Greece to aid Serbia. French General Maurice Sarrail planned an attack on the Bulgarian forces that had thwarted the Allies in 1915.

The Gardeners of Salonika by Alan Palmer, page 74, copyright © 1965 by A. W. Palmer, publisher: Simon and Schuster, publication date: 1965

Tuesday, July 17, 1917

(4) Romania entered the war on August 27, 1916, and was overrun by Central Power forces by the end of the year, driven out of Wallachia and Dobruja and back to Moldavia where the Russians held the Allied line. In July, 1917 they planned a joint Romanian-Russian offensive against German and Austro-Hungerian forces, but watched in dismay as the Russian Kerensky Offensive collapsed.

The Romanian Battlefront in World War I by Glenn E. Torrey, page 196, copyright © 2011 by the University Press of Kansas, publisher: University Press of Kansas, publication date: 2011

Wednesday, July 17, 1918

(5) The execution of former Russian Tsar Nicholas II and his family, early in the morning of July 17, 1918 in Ekaterinburg in the Ural Mountains. The immediate decision had been made by the Presidium of the Divisional Council of Deputies of Workmen, Peasants, and Red Guards of the Urals on the grounds that Czech soldiers and a White Guard plot threatened the carry off the Imperial family. The decision was endorsed by the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of all the Russias on July 18. It would be a year before the Bolsheviks would admit that the entire family, not just Nicholas, had been executed.

Nicholas and Alexandra by Robert K. Massie by Robert K. Massie, page 517, copyright © 1967, renewed 1995 by Robert K. Massie, publisher: Random House, publication date: 2011