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Barbed wire

Russian troops stopped by barbed wire.
Text:
Die Russen vor den Drahtverhauen
The Russians in front of the barbed wire
Reverse:
Wohlfahrts-Postkarte
Der Reinertrag dient zum besten des deutsche Heeres
Der Auschuss:
Herzogin von Ratibor
Frau C. v Stumm, Frau Konf. Staudt
Dr. von Behr-Pinnow
Kammerherr S. M. des Kaisers
Kabinetsrat a. D. J. M. d. Kaiserin
J. Andreae, Bank-Director
Nr.  13
Verlag für Sozialpolitik, Berlin C19
Welfare Postcard
Net proceeds serve the best of the German Army
The Committee:
Duchess of Ratibor, 
Mrs C. von Stumm, Women's Conference Staudt,
Dr. von Behr-Pinnow, Chamberlain of His Majesty the Emperor, 
Cabinet Council retd. J. M. of the Empress
J. Andreae, Bank Director
No. 13
Publisher of Social Policy, Berlin C19

Russian troops stopped by barbed wire.

Image text

Die Russen vor den Drahtverhauen



The Russians in front of the barbed wire



Reverse:

Wohlfahrts-Postkarte



Der Reinertrag dient zum besten des deutsche Heeres

Der Auschuss:

Herzogin von Ratibor

Frau C. v Stumm, Frau Konf. Staudt

Dr. von Behr-Pinnow

Kammerherr S. M. des Kaisers

Kabinetsrat a. D. J. M. d. Kaiserin

J. Andreae, Bank-Director



Nr. 13

Verlag für Sozialpolitik, Berlin C19



Welfare Postcard



Net proceeds serve the best of the German Army

The Committee:

Duchess of Ratibor,

Mrs C. von Stumm, Women's Conference Staudt,

Dr. von Behr-Pinnow, Chamberlain of His Majesty the Emperor,

Cabinet Council retd. J. M. of the Empress

J. Andreae, Bank Director



No. 13

Publisher of Social Policy, Berlin C19

Other views: Larger, Back

The first United States patent for barbed wire was issued in 1867, and it was initially used in building fences for cattle. The fences required few tools: a wire-cutter, a sledge- or other hammer to drive the posts that supported the wire, the posts, and wheels of the wire itself.

In the Spanish-American War, the Spanish defenders of Santiago, Cuba constructed barbed wire defenses in 1898. It was used extensively in the Russo-Japanese War of 1905. The British used barbed wire in the Boer Wars, both for defense and for the concentration camps in which over 42,000 Boers and native Africans died of exposure, disease, and starvation.

Barbed wire fences could be constructed quickly, and were an effective defensive barrier.

One of the goals of artillery bombardments prior to offensives was to destroy barbed wire defenses. The preliminary bombardments had minimal to limited effect in removing the wire for the attacking infantry.

Wiring parties repaired, constructed, and extended barbed wire defenses, typically at night.

Attacking troops had to get through their own barbed wire, and the paths to do so channeled the men, making them more vulnerable to the machine gun fire of the defending troops.

Tanks could crush barbed wire, and could bear rolls of fascine to lay over barbed wire and provide a path for troops.

Barbed wire could be combined with other weapons. One German soldier wrote of the defense before his trench. An attacking enemy had to cross the barbed wire. After that was trip wire close to the ground. Scattered among the trip wire were caltrops, spikes on which the attacker could be impaled.

Soldiers wrote of those hanging in the wire, some alive, or initially alive, some who hung dead for long periods, troops unable to safely retrieve either.

In December 1914: 'for crossing the enemy's obstacles wire cutters and mattresses were provided or had to be improvised.'

Barbed wire is a fortification.