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A map of the Russian-Turkish front from Der Weltkrieg 1914-1918, a 1930s German history of the war illustrated with hand-pasted cigarette cards, showing the Turkish Empire in Asia Minor and Mesopotamia, the Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian Seas and the Persian Gulf. To the west is Egypt, a British dominion; to the east Persia. Erzerum in Turkey and Kars in Russia were the great fortresses on the frontier.
Text:
Mittelmeer: Mediterranean Sea
Schwarzes M: Black Sea
Kasp. M.: Caspian Sea
Kleinasien: Asia Minor
Türkei: Turkey
Russland: Russia
Mesopot.: Mesopotamia
Persien: Persia
Agypten: Egypt
Kairo: Cairo
Stellungen der: Positions of the
Türken Jan. 1915. . .August 1916
Russen Mai 1915 . . . Frühjahr 1916
Engländer: November 1914 . . . Ende 1917
Herbst 1918
Positions of the
Turks Jan. 1915 . . . August 1916
Russians May 1915 . . . spring 1916
English: November 1914 . . . the end of 1917
autumn 1918

A map of the Russian-Turkish front from Der Weltkrieg 1914-1918, a 1930s German history of the war illustrated with hand-pasted cigarette cards, showing the Turkish Empire in Asia Minor and Mesopotamia, the Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian Seas and the Persian Gulf. To the west is Egypt, a British dominion; to the east Persia. Erzerum in Turkey and Kars in Russia were the great fortresses on the frontier.

Image text

Mittelmeer: Mediterranean Sea

Schwarzes M: Black Sea

Kasp. M.: Caspian Sea

Kleinasien: Asia Minor

Türkei: Turkey

Russland: Russia

Mesopot.: Mesopotamia

Persien: Persia

Agypten: Egypt

Kairo: Cairo



Stellungen der: Positions of the

Türken Jan. 1915. . .August 1916

Russen Mai 1915 . . . Frühjahr 1916

Engländer: November 1914 . . . Ende 1917

Herbst 1918



Positions of the

Turks Jan. 1915 . . . August 1916

Russians May 1915 . . . spring 1916

English: November 1914 . . . the end of 1917

autumn 1918

Other views: Larger, Larger

Friday, November 19, 1915

"On 25 October [1915] Nixon received the despatch sanctioning the advance on Baghdad, but it was four days before he passed orders on to Townshend, telling him he wished the advance to begin by 14 November. By that date, the build-up at Aziziya, begun on 5 October with the landing of the 18th Brigade, was complete. Townshend's force now numbered approximately 13,500 including engineers and rear-echelon personnel, with thirty-five guns, and was supported by a new gunboat, HMS Firefly, together with Comet, Shaitan and Sumana,, and horse-barges mounting 4.7-in naval guns and 5-in howitzers, towed by Shushan and Mahsoudi. The expedition's advanced guard had by now occupied Kutuniya and reconnaissance parties had gone on to Baghdadiya and Zor. On 15 November Townshend more more men up to Kutuniya, and by 19 November his entire main force had reached Zor."

Quotation Context

The British, protecting an oil pipe line that ran from Ahwaz and the oil fields in Persia to Basra, a commercial and communications center on the Persian Gulf, expanded their foothold in Mesopotamia, a province of the Ottoman Empire, as the war went on. General Nixon commanded British-Indian forces in Mesopotamia; Townsend the army tasked with taking Baghdad, expanding Britain's territory up the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.

Source

Eden to Armageddon: World War I in the Middle East by Roger Ford, page 40, copyright © Roger Ford 2010, publisher: Pegasus Books, publication date: 2010

Tags

1915-11-19, 1915, November, Mesopotamia