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Baghdad

Detail from a map of southern Turkey, Syria, Palestine, and Mesopotamia from the Baedeker 1912 travel guide 'Palestine and Syria with Routes through Mesopotamia and Babylonia and with the Island of Cyprus'. The detail is of Mesopotamia from Baghdad to Basra and the Persian Gulf and the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.

Detail from a map of southern Turkey, Syria, Palestine, and Mesopotamia from the Baedeker 1912 travel guide 'Palestine and Syria with Routes through Mesopotamia and Babylonia and with the Island of Cyprus'. The detail is of Mesopotamia from Baghdad to Basra and the Persian Gulf and the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.

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Baghdad in Mesopotamia is sited where the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, flowing from their sources in the mountains of Southeastern Turkey, nearly converge, before flowing to Basra and the Persian Gulf. The Sixth Turkish Army Corps was headquartered in Baghdad.

To protect their oil supply from Persia, the British seized Basra on the Persian Gulf on November 21, 1914, then built up their strength adding a division of Indian troops and cavalry. At the same time, the Turks moved a division to Baghdad.

On September 26 to 28, a Commonwealth force of 11,000 troops under General Townshend defeated a Turkish force of 10,500 near Kut-al-Amara, but most of the Turks retreated up the Tigris towards Baghdad. The British continued advancing, ordered by General Nixon to take Baghdad.

On November 27, the were defeated in a battle at Ctesiphon, and retreated to Kut, which was invested by 80,000 Turks on December 8, 1915. 25,000 British and Indian troops were in the city.

Despite attempts to relieve Kut, the British surrendered on April 29, 1916, In the campaign, the British lost 40,000 troops.

In 1915, Russia forces crossed the Caspian Sea to land forces at Enzeli, building a force of 20,000 troops in Persia. After the British surrender at Kut, they attempted a move down the Diyala River towards Baghdad, but were defeated by the Turks.

In August 1916, General Maude replaced General Nixon and began executing a strategy of methodically moving up the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in a series of small attacks on both rivers and on both banks of each.

On March 4, 1917, Maude continued advancing towards Baghdad, fighting a fierce three-day battle at the Diyala River. On March 10, the Turks abandoned Baghdad, and Maude took it on March 11. Maude consolidated his position, moving up the Tigris, Euphrates, Diyala Rivers, then resting through the summer. On November 18, Maude died of cholera.

Baghdad is a city in Mesopotamia.

A sample pie chart graphic

Statistics for Baghdad (1)

Type Statistic
Population 225,000