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Turkish Army

Turkish Cavalry, from a German postcard.
Text:
Turkisch Kavallerie - Turkish Cavalry
Logo:
EAS Original Aufnahme phot. Haeckel. 2235
Reverse:
A. Schwerdti? & Co. A.G. Berlin N(?) 35

Turkish Cavalry, from a German postcard.

Image text

Logo: EAS

Original Aufnahme phot. Haeckel. 2235

Reverse:

A. Schwerdti? & Co. A.G. Berlin N(?) 35

Other views: Larger, Larger

When Turkey entered the war on October 30, 1914, shelling the Russian Black Sea port of Odessa, the country had four armies.

The Turkish First Army was station in European Turkey, on the north side of the Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmara, and the Bosphorus.

The Second Army was on the south side of the straits, in Asia.

The Turkish Third Army was in eastern Turkey (and Mesopotamia?), in the mountains facing the Russian Empire.

The Fourth Army was in Syria and Palestine, along the Mediterranean Sea.

In 1913, German General Liman von Sanders arrived in Turkey, leading a mission to improve the Turkish military. Among other improvements, he strengthened the Turkish forts and shore batteries along the Dardanelles.

In March and April, 1915, von Sanders prepared for the Allied attack. At that time, 'The Fifth Army numbered but five divisions, which were distributed on the European and Asiatic sides as coast guards; the divisions number 9-12 battalions, the battalions 800-1000 men.'